Another complication in trying to separate heterosexual and homosexual themes in Chinese literature is that for most of Chinese history, writing was restricted to a cultivated eliteamongst whom blatant discussion of sex was considered vulgar. Chow E. Connect with ABC News. Instead of that formal word, " tongzhi " Chinese: Gay men from heterosexual marriages:
Confucian social relations Vol.
The influence of Western gay and lesbian culture on China's culture is complex. Furthermore, we gratefully acknowledge the assistance and cooperation from the research participants who contributed their time and effort for this study. Columbia University Press. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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